Worshipers who frequently attend religious services are the least likely to own a pet, according to a new study analyzing data on religion and pet ownership from the 2018 General Social Survey.

But not all animals are created equal when it comes to uncovering the truth about cats and dogs and religion.

“We find a strong, negative association between worship attendance and cat ownership,” wrote researchers Samuel Perry and Ryan Burge in the Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion.