It is a most happy memory that when the Berlin Wall fell in 1989,
Leonard Bernstein was there to celebrate with Beethoven's Ninth
Symphony. It will be remembered that when the great chorus sang
Beethoven's "Ode to Joy," it did not voice the familiar "Freude,
Freude" ("joy, joy") but instead changed the words to "Freiheit,
Freiheit" ("freedom, freedom").
In the shadow of the fallen wall,
freedom was the compelling theme. In light of the unexpected, almost
inexplicable emancipation from barbaric wounding by the East German
government, there was so much to celebrate, and everyone understood the
That simple, direct, unambiguous moment, however, is not the norm for thinking about freedom.