How does one define “modern theology”? Does “modern” refer to a historical period, a particular mode of thinking, or a conflation of both factors? Is “modern theology” a confessional discipline, a public enterprise that eschews sectarian claims, or any form of “first order” religious discourse? This volume cuts through a tangle of conceptual problems by emphasizing critical thinking, minimizing questions of historical contingency, and giving remarkably little attention to the religious-studies challenge to theology as a discipline. Editor Gareth Jones defines his subject as the kind of theology that looks beyond the church for its answers.