In May 2007 I was a speaker at a conference sponsored by the University of Santa Barbara where one of the other presenters was Darius Rejali, the distinguished torture researcher and analyst. During a break, he turned to me and said, in reference to our own country, â€śYou know, of course, that there are five steps which would bring torture to an end.â€ť No, I said, I didnâ€™t know. I will never forget him ticking the five steps off on his fingers one by one.
Although I expected these steps to be included in Rejaliâ€™s magnum opus Torture and Democracy (Princeton University Press), which was soon to appear, I was surprised to discover that they werenâ€™t there. Perhaps at some point he will develop them in print. Until then, they seem important enough to summarize.