The discipline of pastoral theology has been in ferment for more than a decade. Scholarly works offering new vistas have broadened the conception and practice of pastoral and congregational care. Though many features of the old clinical model remain—the emphasis on nurturing empathic relationships, the attentiveness to "lived experience" and to dynamic and developmental process—the new outlook rejects or modifies the individualism, clergy-centeredness and attention to intrapsychic conflict in that approach. It focuses instead on social and cultural diversity, inclusiveness, gender, race, class and ethnicity. Increasingly, the recent material is also more explicitly and significantly theological.