Century Marks

Century Marks

Liquor Effect

Marie Crandall, a trauma surgeon at Northwestern Memo­r­ial Hospital in Chicago, did a study of violence in the city’s most violent neighborhoods. She discovered that people who live near a liquor store or bar are 500 times more likely to be shot than other people in the same neighborhood. Crandall hopes that her study will start a discussion about how easy access to alcohol affects urban neighborhoods plagued by poverty, crime and the lack of jobs and nutritious food. Crandall suggests replacing liquor stores, which often serve as local mini-marts, with grocery stores (Chicago Tribune, September 19).

Food waste

There is enough food in the world to feed everyone adequately, according to food activist Frances Moore Lappé. “For every human being on the planet,” Lappé says, “the world produces two pounds of grain per day—roughly 3,000 calories, and that’s without even counting all the beans, potatoes, nuts, fruits, and vegetables we eat, too.” Nor does this finding take into account wild food that many rural people eat. The problem is an inefficient food system. Nearly half the food purchased by Americans goes to waste. Meat consumption is also inefficient. “For every man, woman, and child alive, 1,700 calories in grain are going to livestock, which at best can return only 400 calories to us in meat” (Interpretation, October).

As good as cricket

Speaking at a book launching, the militant atheist Richard Dawkins admits he is a cultural Anglican. He would miss church bells if they were gone, and he views evensong in a country church with the same appreciation as he views a cricket match on a village green. Dawkins lauds the “benign tolerance” of the Anglican tradition, which makes it possible to appreciate religious traditions without actually believing in them. He suspects that many Anglicans “don’t believe any of it at all” (Telegraph, September 12).

Room for doubt

In a recent interview Pope Francis addressed the topic of faith and certainty. If someone has the answers to all the questions, Francis said, “that is the proof that God is not with him.” The great leaders of the faith have always left room for uncertainty. “You must leave room for the Lord, not for our certainties.” There is one principle about which the pope is certain: “God is in every person’s life. . . . Even if the life of a person has been a disaster, even if it is destroyed by vices, drugs or anything else—God is in this person’s life. You can, you must try to seek God in every human life” (America, September 30).

Unequal pleasures

Philoso­phers have long talked about two different kinds of pleasure: hedonic pleasure gained through good food and drink and eudaimonic pleasure gained from serving the common good. Researchers have discovered that the two kinds of pleasure have different biological consequences. Hedonic pleasure leads to a gene expression associated with inflammation that can cause arthritis and heart disease. Eudaimonic pleasure has the opposite effect: it reduces the stress associated with inflammation. Hedonic pleasure may be the emotional equivalent of empty calories: it offers short-term pleasure with long-term ill effects (ScienceDaily.com, July 29).