This month is the sesquicentennial celebration of Lincoln’s signing of the Emancipation Proclamation, popularly thought to be the act that freed the slaves. In reality, it didn’t free all the slaves, only those in parts of the Confederacy that were in rebellion against the Union. Since those slaves were behind enemy lines, the proclamation couldn’t be enforced, at least not while the Civil War was in progress. The proclamation didn’t apply to parts of the South that weren’t in rebellion or to four border states with slaves who didn’t join the Confederacy. The proclamation, however, set the stage for the passing of the Thirteenth Amendment two years later, which outlawed slavery (USA Today, December 25).