Palestinian textbooks have long been criticized for demonizing Israelis and even calling Jews pigs. A recent study of textbooks for Palestinians, Israelis and ultra-Orthodox Jews in Israel concluded that though textbooks of both sides are one-sided, demonization of others is rare in any of them. The most extreme examples of a negative bias were found in the ultra-Orthodox textbooks. Both Israeli and Palestinian textbooks avoid acknowledging the existence of the other’s territory. Only 4 percent of Palestinian textbooks show the green line, which separates their territory in the West Bank from Israel. On the other side, 76 percent of Israeli textbooks fail to label the Palestinian territories and show no boundaries between Israel and Palestine. Bruce Wexler of Yale, who led the study, said: “The idea of maps is to represent reality; here it represents fantasy.” The study was sponsored by the U.S. State Department (Guardian, February 3).