The U.S. Constitution gives Congress the power to declare war, but it has exercised that power only five times, the last being in the case of World War II. Since the signing of the Constitution in 1787, American presidents have put military forces into action hundreds of times without congressional action. To counteract the executive office's actions in Vietnam, the War Powers Resolution was passed in 1973, calling for an authorization letter and giving the president a two-month deadline. This law has been toothless. No president, Democrat or Republican, has wanted to have his powers as commander in chief curtailed by Congress (Time, July 4).